Hello friends, through today’s article, I am going to tell you about the Post-urban phase of Harappan culture, so let’s start.
Post-urban phase of Harappan culture
The Harappan culture probably continued till 1900 BC. Later its urban condition disappeared. Mature culture was characterized by well-organized townships, widespread brick structures, writing, standard weights, distinction between fortifications and low-level cities, the use of bronze tools, and the construction of red pottery painted with black figures. . Its stylistic uniformity ended and there was a huge diversity of styles.
Some signs of post-urban Harappan culture are also visible in Pakistan, in central and western India, and in Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Delhi and western Uttar Pradesh. Their period can be from about 1900 BC to 1200 BC. Sub-Indus culture to the post-urban phase of the Harappan culture. it is said. Earlier this culture was called Post-Harappan, but now this post-Harappan culture is Chalcolithic in origin, in which stone and copper tools were used.
In these such tools were made of metal, whose casting is easy. Still, axes, chisels, bracelets, curved astura, bansi and spear are found. The people of the Chalcolithic culture, in the later stages of the Harappan culture, began to do bombing in the villages, farming, animal husbandry, hunting and fishing. Perhaps the spread of metallurgical technical knowledge in the countryside facilitated farming and settlements. Some places like Prabhas Patan (Somnath) and Rangpur of Gujarat are like auras sons of Harappan culture.
But the Had elements are found only in the Ahar near Udaipur. In Gilund, which seems to be the local center of Ahar culture, egg structures have also been found, which can be dated between 2000 BC and 1500 BC. Although the discovery of fired bricks is given in the post-Harappan stage of Khana Bhagwanpura, the dating of the brick level is doubtful. Yes, few bricks have been found at the site of Garrick pottery (OCP) of Red Fort in Bulandshahr district in western Uttar Pradesh. Nevertheless, the influence of the Harappan element on the Chalcolithic culture of Malwa (about 1700-1200 BC), whose largest settlement is at Navdatoli, is very small. Jorwe sites have also been found in the valley of Jaa Tapi, Godavari and Bhima, the same holds true.
The largest of the Jorwe settlements is the Daimabad settlement, which occupies an area of about 22 hectares and can have a population of 4000. Its form can be called proto-urban. But most of the Jorwe settlements are villages. Post-urban Harappan settlements have been found in the Swat valley, where they used to do good farming and animal husbandry along with pastoralism. They used black-and-grey opdar pots made on slow-moving wheels. These pottery dates back to the Tosar millennium BC and later from those found on the plateau of northern Iran. The inhabitants of the Swat valley also prepared red-on-black ware on chalk, which closely related to the pottery of the early post-urban period, indicating that they were related to the post-urban culture associated with Harappa.
Therefore, the Swat valley can be considered as the northern end of the post-Harappan culture. Many post-Harappan excavations have also been done in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Jammu in India. Among them Manda in Jammu, Chandigarh and Sanghol in Punjab, Daulatpur in Haryana and Alamgirpurb and Hulas in Uttar Pradesh are notable.
- ARABS AND TURKS INVADED INDIA
- REASON OF THE SUCCESS OF THE ARABS
- CONSEQUENCES OF ARAB CONQUEST OF SINDH
- PROBLEM OF HARAPPAN ORIGIN
Through today’s article, I have told you about the post-urban phase of Harappan culture, if you like the information given by me, then do share this article with your friends, thank you!