Hello friends, today, through which article am I going to tell you about the Harappan civilization, through which article you will get the geographical expansion of the Harappan civilization, city plans, agriculture, crafts and technical knowledge, business political organization, religious stories, Indus I am going to tell about the totem of the valley, worship of trees and animals, Harappan script, problem of Harappan origin etc. I hope you guys like the information given by me so let’s start
History of Harappa Civilization:
The Bronze Age urban culture found in Harappa located in Pakistan’s Punjab made a great discovery. In 1853, the British engineer Alexander Cunningham, who became a great explorer and explorer, saw the seal of Harappan culture. Vrishabha and a total of six letters were inscribed on the seal, but they did not understand its importance. Much later, in 1921 AD, when Indian archaeologist Dayaram Sahni started excavations of Harappa, its possibilities started being discussed. Often at the same time historian Rakhaldas Banerjee excavated Mohenjodaro in Sindh. Both discovered pottery and other antiquities which indicated a developed civilization.
From 1926 to 1934, M. S. Vats excavated Harappa; It was also excavated by E. J. H. Mackay. From 1934 onwards, John Marshall took over the excavation of Mohenjodaro. In 1946, Mortimer Hriller excavated Harappa. Thus the excavations before independence and partition brought to light important antiquities of many sites of Harappan culture, where bronze was used.
In the post-independence period, archaeologists from both India and Pakistan excavated Harappan and its associated sites. Suraj Bhan, M. K. Dhavalikar, J. P. Joshi, B. B. Lal, S. R. Rao, B. K. Thapar, R. S. Visht and some other archaeologists worked in this connection in Gujarat, Haryana and Rajasthan.
F.A. Khan excavated a site called Kotdiji under the Indus Valley in Pakistan and M. R. Mughal paid more attention to the excavations of the Hakra and Pre-Hakra cultures. A. H. Dani excavated the tombs of Gandhar in the north-west Saumant region of Pakistan. American, British, French and Italian archaeologists worked at many sites, including Harappa.
We now have abundant Harappan materials, although excavations and explorations are still going on. All scholars are unanimous on the urban nature of the Harappan culture.
But there are different opinions on the role of Sarasvati river, identified with the Hakra-Ghaggar river and the identity of the creator of this culture. We will consider this in the present chapter.
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