Through today’s article, I am going to tell you about Arabs and Turks invaded India, so let’s start.
Arabs and Turks invaded India
There was a complete lack of political unity in India in the 6th century. The whole of India was divided into small states. Their kings often fought for the empire. Only the Rajput states started the feudal tradition, in which the feudal lord was often loyal to his king. Due to the feeling of narrowness in the caste system, there was lack of unity in the society. The state was divided into jagirs, in which the feeling of mutual hatred, strife and conflict prevailed. The feudatories had their own army. The feudal lords also used to collect taxes. The influence of the feudatories on the government and the army had increased widely, which proved fatal for the king and his authority. A situation of internal anarchy and unrest had arisen in the whole country. Under such circumstances it was not possible to avoid foreign invasions.
In this environment the Arab Muslims started thinking of attacking India. In the first half of the seventh century, they started planning to invade India. The first attack took place during the time of Caliph Umar, but he did not get any success. In 643 AD, the second invasion took place and this time the Arabs took control of Sistan and Makran (a part of Balochistan). The rulers of Sindh and Makran tried to stop the progress of the Arabs. The Arab invaders wanted to advance in India, but they could not attack Sindh due to lack of encouragement and help from the then Ummaid dynasty Caliph. This was followed by a third and successful invasion of Sindh in the eighth century. The reasons for this attack were as follows
1. The first goal of the Arabs to attack Sindh was to plunder money. In order to plunder the immense splendor of India, the Arabs made a program to attack India.
2. The second objective was to propagate Islam in India.
3. The third objective was to expand the boundaries of his empire.
The excuse they were looking for to embody these desires was found in the form of a small incident. Pirates of Sindh plundered Arab ships near a place called Thatta on the banks of Deol. This event has been described by different authors in different ways. Some scholars believe that Arab ships were plundered near a place called Thatta on the banks of Sindh. The king of Lanka had sent the orphan girls of the deceased persons to Iraq in this ship. The second author says that the king of Lanka had accepted Islam and sent a lot of money, gifts etc. to the Caliph in these ships, which was looted by the pirates. According to a third author, Hajjaj, the governor-general of Iraq, was robbed of slaves and some money by pirates. Hajjaj demanded compensation from Dahir, the Hindu king of Kathiawar, but Dahir could not fulfill this demand. His answer was “I have no right over the pirates.” Hajjaj was furious at this and started planning a massive attack on India.
Hajjaj attacked India twice by giving a huge army to his commander. But failed both times. His commander Ubaidullah was also killed in these attacks. But Hajjaj was not discouraged. He now sent his son-in-law Muhammad bin Qasim to attack India with a huge army. Qasim was a skilled general and a mighty warrior. There were twenty-five thousand soldiers in the army of Arabs, while the army of Dahir was very less. Dahir did not try to stop Qasim on the border, he remained inactive in his capital. In 712 AD the Arab army came to Dewal. Four thousand Indian soldiers fought fiercely, but a spy told the secret of the flag. There was a famous temple in Dewal, a red flag was flying over it. The Arabs dropped that flag. Indians were superstitious, they felt that the fall of the flag was sure to defeat them. So the spirits of the soldiers were crushed. Ultimately Muhammad bin Qasim won. Make him declare that all the residents should accept the Muslim religion. For not obeying the orders, all the people above the age of seventeen were put to death and women and children were made slaves. Qasim sent part of the loot and 75,000 women to the governor of Iraq, Hanyaz, and distributed the rest of the money to the soldiers. Now the Arab army moved north. He conquered Nerun and Sarvistan.
Attack on Brahminism
After these victories, Qasim moved forward. A Sindhi feudal lord’ and his brother got acquainted with the enemies. King Dahir set out with his army to fight the Arabs. He got rid of sixes worth billions. The courage of the Arabs came to an end and a stampede ensued. Suddenly Dahir’s elephant got fire. Due to this a fire broke out on Heide too and Dahir was killed. His army remained in Buddha for some time, after which his spirits were crushed. Ultimately the Hindus were defeated. Because Ranibai was also defeated and left the world by observing Jauhar fast. The rule of Brahmins ended over the entire region of Sindh and the rule of Islam was established.
Possession of Multan
After the victory over Brahmanism, Qasim attacked Alor. Here Dahir’s son was the king, but he became a fugitive. After arranging Alor, Qasim proceeded towards Multan. Although the ruler of Multan faced him valiantly, he could not stand before Qasim for a long time and surrendered, as there was a shortage of water in the fort. Qasim got Hindu soldiers killed and made their wives and children slaves. He was not too harsh with the general public. Those who accepted to pay Jizya were not even made Muslims. Even the temples were not demolished, but their property was looted.
The end of Muhammad bin Qasim
Qasim’s glorious life ended in very humiliating circumstances. There are two views on this- first is that Qasim presented the two daughters of Dahir to the Caliph. The girls Parmal and Suryadevi were very clever. He told the Caliph that Qasim had already disturbed his sanctity. The Caliph got angry and ordered that Qasim be presented in a raw hide. Due to this, Qasim died of suffocation. Thereafter those girls announced that they had asked Qasim to take revenge. The caliph made both the princesses tied to the horse’s tail and drove the horses away, due to which both of them died. Some scholars consider this story to be fictional. According to him, due to the increasing power of Qasim, many courtiers in the court were jealous of him. He instigated the Caliph against Qasim. Ultimately Qasim was killed by the Caliph.
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